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It is well known that the development model foisted upon the 'developing' world by the West, in the name of modernization Modernity Project Mark I has been regarded for decades by many non-western scholars and activists as cultural imperialism.
The realization that globalization has the power to exponentially increase this transgression has led me to coin the term Modernity Project Mark II, to highlight its amplified effects.
While much has been written in the last few years about the impact of globalization, particularly on the less 'developed' countries and peoples, the discourse with regard to globalization and youth has remained oddly silent. In its first definitive statement of the impact of globalization on the situation of youth, the United Nations Youth Information Network takes a rather cautious view, conceding more analysis is needed on the impact of: Intensified evidence of poverty, unemployment and social exclusion Furthermore, the trade imbalances between developed and developing economies, favoring the more developed economies, place development at risk in many countries Hundreds of millions of people are negatively affected by these factors.
Young people are particularly affected, because it means that their transition to adulthood is made more difficult On the other Thesis about youth culture in canada There are constructive trends.
Many countries are experiencing a deepening of democracy This opens up opportunities for participation by all people. Young people will gain from this move towards democracy.
United Nations This cool and balanced weighing of pros and cons, masks a deeper, more far-reaching and profound cultural transgression that is emerging in the literature on the impact of globalization.
While the emphasis of concern of global NGOs about the well-being of youth globally has primarily focused on health and education issues in the 'developing' world, the emerging figures for growing mental health issues for young people in the 'overdeveloped' world confirm that 'development' as part of the modernity project is not the panacea it was once thought.
Yet globalization called by some 'Americanization' has amplified the modernity project manyfold, supported by mass education and communication technologies, particularly the Internet and the mass Media.
Globalization is increasingly perceived by many non-western academics and researchers as 'a form of western ethnocentrism and patronizing cultural imperialism, 1 which invades local cultures and lifestyles, deepens the insecurities of indigenous identities and contributes to the erosion of national cultures and historical traditions'.
Lemish, Drotner et al. While these Dickensian images of children in sweat shops are no longer valid for the West, the global sweep of industrial geography has merely shifted these images into other backyards - those of the newly 'developing' nations.
As gentrification emerges and child labor becomes unfashionable in one place the multi- national global agenda simply shifts to another locus, from Japan to Korea, from Malaysia to Taiwan, from China to Fiji as the race for ever cheaper products meets the craving to buy what the high-tech world has to offer.
Who will be next? In addition to these overtly oppressive macro-economic forces, globalization also impacts on non-western youth as a result of at least two other major processes: In a critique of the model of education put forward by the World Bank a decade ago at the 'Education for All' meeting in Jomtein, Thailand, a number of educationists and social activists, cite this model as being a further attempt to assert the values and culture of the western materialist worldview.
The Education for All agenda argued that education is essential for economic survival, but Sangeeta Kamat contests this yoking of education with economics.
Kamat She argues that it is a flawed model for education being based as it is on human capital theory in which the World Bank's proposals relate to 'building human capital for increasing national productivity, as in production and consumption of economically valued goods and services'.
Furthermore, while the rhetoric of the 'Education for All' strategy was to promote 'flexibility and adaptability to local culture' according to Anita Dighe, in practice, in India at least, the reality of the World-bank funded District Primary Education Project is homogeneity and 'uniformity'.
Hoppers And yet, in the west itself, the narrow conceptualization of literacy as the 'new supreme force' has been undergoing serious critique from educationists and futures researchers for decades. The overvaluing of 2 narrowly-defined 'textual literacy' reading and writing text compared with broader categories of human expression social 'literacy', oral 'literacy', emotional 'literacy' reflects the material manifestation of narrowly defined conceptualizations of human intelligence.
Although the literature on multiple intelligences, cognitive holism, the value of artistic education and oral literacy has been growing in the west for decades, it seems that the World Bank programs have overlooked their impact. Read ; Anderson ; Eisner ; Arnheim ; Gardner Educational and youth futures researchers, aware of the failure of the western educational model to provide young people with confidence, hope, a sense of meaning and a love of life-long learning, are engaged in exploring alternative educational processes which transcend the narrow bounds of the three R's reading, 'riting and 'rithmetic.
Ong As a result of this process of mass education of children of the third world over the last decade, the increasing enculturation of the world's youth into the western world-view is described by Pawan Gupta: He adds, in a description of what might be called 'virtual colonialism', "the West has succeeded in refining the instruments of control to such a high degree that the physical presence of the oppressor is no longer required at the site of exploitation".
Gupta It is well known that education is the most powerful method of enculturating even 'brainwashing' a people. Mass education which transplants an educational model from one cultural system such as Euro-American into another very different culture while retaining the original standards and categories of knowledge, is tantamount to cultural genocide.
Nandy The New Media as Amplifier of Global 'Culture' The Mass Media such as Television, musicand in particular the New Media such as the Internet are important tools in the process of spreading the global culture to young people around the world and conversely can be used as a platform for the networking of resistance.
Researchers from Denmark, France and Israel found that as a result of the media-induced processes of globalization, young people in those countries have a preference for transnational fiction, and movie material particularly American 'soapies' and also a new sense of transnational social space provided by the Internet.
This creates a push and pull effect of 'look alike' teenage role models masking the ongoing struggle for 3 individuality and identity which is at the heart of adolescence.Jul 30, · Best Answer: Today's youth culture is in may ways stuck inside their own head as if it were a pair of ear buds.
In ancient times before computers, TV, and celebrity"celebrity" "culture" their were the stars and the Status: Resolved. "Self & Cultural Continuity as a hedge against youth suicide." university of british columbia, 7 february ().presentation. Kirmayer, Laurence, et al.
"Suicide Among Aboriginal People in Canada".
Jul 30, · Best Answer: Today's youth culture is in may ways stuck inside their own head as if it were a pair of ear buds. In ancient times before computers, TV, and celebrity"celebrity" "culture" their were the stars and the moon in the sky to view and to ardatayazilim.com: Resolved.
Globalization and its Impact on Youth By Jennifer Gidley [Gidley, Jennifer, () Globalization and its Impact on Youth, Journal of Futures Studies, (Vol 6, No 1, August), pp.
] Modernity Project Mark II Globalization is a series of powerful processes that provide both opportunities and threats.
Marketers historically have recognised this, and therefore, use certain elements of youth culture to promote products. The media influence on the development of youth cultures and sub-cultures is also instrumental, with young people facing a barrage of messages explaining what it means to be young.
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